Ethical Standards

Quality in publishing has long been a standard in Human Technology’s interdisciplinary research publication. This emphasis on quality applies not only to the content of papers but also to the accepted and expected ethics practices in scientific research and publishing. Human Technology holds these ethical expectations for its authors, editors, and reviewers, and for its publisher, the Open Science Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

Most explicitly, publishing ethics underscores the scientific community’s expectation that research is conducted in a transparent, objective, ethical, and honest fashion, and that those involved in peer-review and the publishing of research operate in a fair, objective, transparent, and confidential manner. These are the standards that Human Technology upholds, and they are reviewed periodically and updated as needed. The expectations for publishing ethics provided below are drawn from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)’s Guidelines on Good Publication Practice, Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers, and Code of Ethics for Journal Editors

 

AUTHORS

In submitting a manuscript to Human Technology for publication consideration, its authors attest that the paper presents original work that they have written. Any wording, phrasing, or ideas that are not of the authors’ origin must be properly noted and referenced. The contribution in any manuscript must be the authors’ own and not copied or plagiarized wholly or in part from others’ work, published or unpublished, without proper citation. Plagiarism in any and all forms is unacceptable because it is unethical. All manuscripts submitted to Human Technology undergo an antiplagiarism assessment by means of online software.

Inclusion of others’ material—words, ideas, graphics, or images, in full or in part—should be credited. In some cases related to copyrighted works, signed permission from the copyright holder is essential to reprint blocks of text, graphics, or images. Authors are responsible for securing the necessary reprint permission and submitting a copy of that to Human Technology, along with any required reprint permission wording provided by the copyright holder. If the manuscript includes photographs of individuals in which their face or other identifying feature is visible, the authors must secure and submit to Human Technology a signed photo release from each individual that states he/she agrees to his/her photograph being printed in the manuscript and available on the Internet via Human Technology’s website. Ideally, this permission is secured at the time the photograph is taken. Authors should make both copyright holders and photograph subjects aware of the open access conditions for papers published in this journal.

In regard to privacy, information obtained privately, for example, through correspondence or personal conversations, must not be included in one’s work without explicit permission from the source and then properly noted within the report. Authors who have access to information as a result of their services (e.g., as a reviewer or evaluator of grants or conference papers) may not use any of the information from those sources without expressed, written consent of the authors of that material.

Manuscripts must represent an accurate account of the research conducted, and authors must be objective in presenting its significance. Additionally, all data should be presented accurately. Fraudulent, fabricated, or knowingly inaccurate statements are unethical; such misconduct is not acceptable in scientific publishing. Moreover, the paper should provide sufficient explanation of methods and referencing so that others may be able to replicate the research.

Generally, manuscripts presenting essentially the same research should not be submitted for publication consideration or be published by more than one journal. Simultaneously submitting to more than one publication outlet breaches publication ethics; concerns or questions about the appropriateness of similar content or translations of prior research should be addressed to the editor in chief (humantechnology@jyu.fi).

Authorship of a manuscript should be limited to individuals who have made significant contributions to the conception, design and execution, data collection, data analysis, and results interpretation of the research reported in the submission. Authorship also may apply to those who draft or significantly revise a manuscript if those individuals contribute intellectual content. All authors must accept public responsibility for the research, even if they contributed to only one area, and all must approve, and agree to submit, the version of the manuscript sent to Human Technology for publication consideration. Other individuals who contribute significantly (e.g., technical support, editing, general support) but who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be acknowledged in the Authors’ Note area of the submitted manuscript.

Authors must publicly disclose any areas of potential or perceived conflict of interest when submitting a manuscript for publication consideration. Such information should also be presented in the Authors’ Note area of the manuscript. Conflict of interest represents personal, academic, commercial, financial, or political circumstances that may influence the objectivity, the results or interpretation of results, or other judgment of the authors, editor, and/or reviewers.

When submitting a manuscript, the authors accept the obligation to participate in the peer review process and to respond fully and promptly to requests from editors to provide raw data, clarifications on any area of the paper, proof of ethics approval and participant consent, and/or copyright and photo right permissions. In addition, authors are expected to respond to reviewers’ and editors’ comments point by point when revising and uploading their manuscripts by the stated deadline.

By submitting a manuscript to Human Technology, the authors understand and agree to allow their published papers to be available to readers by way of the CC-BY-NC license, which allows others to copy, distribute, display, and modify, with appropriate credit—although with no commercial uses—without explicit approval from the authors. Additionally, corresponding authors (on behalf of all co-authors) will agree to sign Human Technology’s Authors’ Warranty and Publications Agreement in order for the paper to be published in the journal. The corresponding author will sign on behalf of his/her co-authors, confirming that they have agreed to publishing in Human Technology.

If an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her work at any time—and specifically after publication—the author is obligated to bring such information to the attention of Human Technology’s editor in chief. Moreover, the author will cooperate with the editor and publisher in any process of retraction, correction, or apology and any other aspect of the problematic text.

 

EDITORS

The editors of Human Technology, the editor in chief in particular, strive for a journal that meets the needs of both the authors and the readers. They uphold practices that maintain an objective, fair, and transparent process in line with international standards and ethical guidelines toward dissemination of quality scientific research. Additionally, they are committed to continually improving the journal, to avoiding activities that might be interpreted at any level as a conflict of interest, and to publish willingly corrections, retractions, clarifications, or apologies, as needed. 

The editors are responsible for all that is published in the journal, champion freedom of expression, and uphold integrity in scientific publishing in accord with legal requirements currently in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, fraudulent and misleading research, and plagiarism. The editor in chief maintains authority over the editorial content of the journal and its publication.

All manuscripts submitted to Human Technology are evaluated objectively and fairly, without regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, political or religious convictions, or ethnicity or citizenship. Decisions on the status of submissions is based solely on the paper’s importance, clarity, and originality and contribution, and the reported study’s validity and relevance to the scope of the journal and, when appropriate, scope of the thematic issue in which it is being considered. Editors seek to confirm that authors are abiding by ethical guidelines in their reporting. When needed, editors will recuse themselves from evaluating manuscripts in which there may be a perceived or actual conflict of interest. Moreover, the editor in chief strives to prevent any perceived or actual conflict of interests by authors, other editors, editorial staff, and reviewers.

Editors ensure that any information submitted to the journal in relation to a submission is kept confidential prior to publication; no information on the paper will be disclosed to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers and potential reviewers, editorial advisors and staff, and the publisher, and will do so only when appropriate. Moreover, information contained in submitted papers will not be used by editors, editorial board members, or members of the editorial staff for their own research or for any other purpose without explicit, written consent by the authors.

The editors are responsible for ensuring a fair double-blind peer-review process by at least two experts in the field/topic addressed in the manuscript. Editors also strive to inform and support reviewers in their fair evaluations of papers and in adherence to ethical standards during review. Moreover, editors are committed to maintaining anonymity of reviewers, unless the reviewer states otherwise. The editors are willing to justify any decisions to authors and reviewers.

In Human Technology, only the editor in chief can accept or reject manuscripts. Decisions to accept a paper for publication will not be reversed unless serious concerns of the paper are identified; however, rescheduling of a publication date may be needed if circumstances warrant. This commitment applies as well to incoming editors in chief assuming authority from their predecessors. Editors will fulfill their role in assessing and deciding on submitted manuscripts in as timely manner as possible.

 

REVIEWERS

The purpose of external peer review is to assist the editors of Human Technology in determining the quality, contribution, scientific integrity and ethics, and objective reporting of a submitted manuscript. In that role, reviewers play key roles in assisting the editors, and the editor in chief in particular, in making sound editorial decisions and well as in supporting the author in improving the manuscript.

Reviewers must evaluate a manuscript based on the content of the paper, without any regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, political or religious convictions, or ethnicity or citizenship. The conducted review should be objective, fair, and clear; personal criticism of the work or the authors is inappropriate. In presenting their opinions and recommendations, reviewers should express themselves clearly and directly, providing supporting arguments as needed.

If a reviewer becomes aware of any level of copyright infringement or plagiarism, or an instance of duplicate or overlapping submissions or publications, he/she should notify the editors immediately. This applies to any published or unpublished works with which the reviewer is familiar.

Should a reviewer accept a review and determine that he/she is unqualified to conduct a sufficient and/or objective review of that manuscript, have any level of actual or perceived conflict of interest with the author or topic, or realize that the review cannot be completed within the stated timetable, he/she should contact the editors immediately.

Reviewers should ensure that any information related to a manuscript under their review is kept confidential. Neither the manuscript nor the review should be shown to others outside the journal’s review process without explicit, written permission of Human Technology’s editor in chief (who would agree only in exceptional or explicit cases). This applies to reviewers, those invited to review, and those who accepted a review but did not complete it. Moreover, reviewers cannot use information from unpublished papers without the explicit, written permission of the authors.

 

PUBLISHER

The publisher of Human Technology will create and support an environment that is conducive to publishing ethics. This is achieved through discussions with the editor in chief and the editorial staff and in the publisher’s emphasis on ethical behavior in scholarly research, reporting, and publishing. In collaboration with the journal’s editors, the publisher will establish policies that uphold publishing ethics and strive, through its own practices, to meet and safeguard these policies.

Editorial independence is a cornerstone of quality and ethical scholarly publishing. The publisher will underscore this practice and exert no influence on the editorial content of the journal as determined by the editor in chief.

The importance of transparency and integrity are woven throughout the interaction between the publisher and the editorial processes and personnel, as well as emphasized between the journal and the authors and reviewers. Areas impacted by transparency and integrity involve conflict of interest, the journal’s funding model, research funding and reporting; the importance of research ethics involving the confidentiality, consent, and ethical standards for human research; the objectivity of the review process; and the interplay of the editorial staff, editorial board, guest editors, and the editor in chief.

The journal publisher is responsible for communicating its policies to various audiences, including authors, reviewers, editorial board members, editor in chief and editorial staff, and the readers. These policies should be reviewed periodically and updated as needed, particularly in regard to changes to or enhancements in international ethics standards and ethics statements for journal publishing.

The publisher is responsible for assuring that editorial content is published on a regular basis. Moreover, the publisher must establish a means for the permanent availability/accessibility of and the preservation of the scholarly research published in Human Technology. This includes the establishment and maintenance of a digital archive.

In conjunction with the editors, the publisher should be active in taking reasonable steps to prevent publishing malpractice and in demanding publishing ethics from all parties associated with academic journal publication. Should allegations of academic fraudulence, plagiarism, or scientific or journal publishing misconduct arise, the Open Science Center, as publisher, must collaborate with the journal’s editors and other parties involved (e.g., academic or research organizations, funding organizations) in investigating fully and transparently the allegations and, as needed, participate in the resolution of the issues. This may involve, for instance, publishing a retraction, a correction or clarification, an apology, or other necessary action.

The publisher should establish and communicate a clear process through which appeals or complaints from authors can be remedied.